Why aren’t adult learners actively engaged in training?
Have you ever trained adult learners and noticed that after several minutes that they are looking at you with a blank stare? It is likely that such disengagement is due to overuse of lecturing. While I am not against the technique of lecturing, if used inappropriately, it can impact your audience’s interest, but to facilitate effective training, you need to get your learners involved. That is, you need to get them engaged with the purpose of the training so they can share their experiences and ideas with the other adult learners in the class. Facilitation is a learning process in which an instructor, teacher or trainer—called a facilitator—guides a group or individual toward a particular goal. Furthermore, a facilitator helps people move through a process; he or she is not the seat of wisdom and knowledge. The facilitator is there not to give opinions but to draw out learners’ opinions and ideas. Is this what you do when you provide training? If not, or if you only do it somewhat, don’t fret; I have compiled best practices to aid you in engaging your learners in the purpose of the training. Remember that facilitation focuses on HOW people participate in the process of learning or planning—not just on WHAT is achieved.
Before you get started, I want to introduce a few soft rules to help you with your facilitation:
Stay on topic and remember the purpose of the training
Develop and maintain a detailed process to guide your work
Always remember to demonstrate neutrality
Next, it is important to understand common uses for facilitation. I have provided a few. Can you think of others?
Building team unity
Making collective decisions
I previously mentioned that lecturing has limitations. To a certain extent, so does facilitation. I suggest that you evaluate the purpose of your training to determine whether lecture or facilitation—or a blend of both—best support your adult learners’ needs. When evaluating your training, consider the role of the classroom’s configuration. Will your adult learners be seated in traditional rows, a “U” shape, a circle or several pods?
Now that we have gotten preliminary considerations out of the way, let’s talk about five key areas in which you can enhance your ability to facilitate training for adult learners:
When facilitating training, encourage your adult learners to voice their ideas on the topic of
the training. To do this, skillfully elicit learners’ feelings and incorporate them into a class conversation. Adjust the cadence of your presentation to allow for active learning and self-referencing to occur—especially when the topic of the training may evoke emotion. This practice can instill trust in participants and help them feel that their opinions matter. Preferably, address learners by their first names. Of course, a few participants will be unwilling to get involved in certain aspects of the conversation; however, a good facilitator will notice their nonparticipation and extend an olive branch to get them to contribute. This helps earn the trust of all participants by showing that you as the facilitator are interested in what they have to say.
A key to facilitating is honing your teaching skills to ensure effective delivery of the training content. Whenever possible, choose a position in the training environment that allows you to face the adult learners. Ensure that, as you speak and move about, you maintain eye contact with your audience. Finally, avoid distracting your audience while facilitating (e.g., by looking at your cell phone, having side conversations with other students, or bringing up personal matters).
Now that training is underway and you are practicing good facilitation techniques, you must use keen observation skills to determine how you should focus your efforts to engage the adult learners. Constantly scan the room and note your audience’s facial expressions, body language, and movements. Do your best to determine the learners’ feelings based on what you have observed. Don’t be afraid make adjustments to your delivery based on your observations.
In addition to teaching and observation skills, you must also develop good listening skills. After listening to a participant’s words, paraphrase those ideas to demonstrate your understanding. By providing such a summary to the entire class, you can ensure clarity and allow the participant to further clarify comments. During this carefully orchestrated demonstration of facilitation, observe the participant’s emotions by politely commenting on the observed behavior related to the topic. Simply put, if a comment evokes a sign, such as an outburst or a nonverbal clue, ask those who demonstrate such behavior to chime in with their opinions. Warning: make sure this solicitation is based on the topic to avoid disrupting the training. Don’t be afraid to table questions that you cannot immediately answer. My suggestion is to tactfully place the comment into the “parking lot” and then address the concern during a break or after class.
Ask open-ended (rather than closed-ended) questions during your training session to engage participants. What is the difference? Closed-ended questions are specific and do not require much explanation beyond what is asked (e.g., “What is your name?” or “How old are you?”). Open-ended questions elicit detailed explanations and cannot be satisfied with a response of “yes” or “no” (e.g., “Why is this important to you?” or “Why did this occur?”). I suggest using Socratic questioning to elicit how your participants think and feel about the topic of discussion. Socratic questioning challenges the accuracy and completeness of learners’ thinking in a way that moves them toward their ultimate realization. Does your training have a goal or desired outcome? Plato and Socrates outlined six types of questioning that can draw out answers from participants.
1. Conceptual clarification: These questions dive deeper into underlying concepts (e.g., “Why are you saying that?” or “What do you mean by that?”).
2. Assumption questioning: These queries challenge presuppositions and unquestioned beliefs (e.g., “What might you be assuming?” or “Can you explain your assumption?”).
3. Rationale probing: These questions challenge weakly supported or poorly thought-out arguments (e.g., “Why is this happening?” or “How did this happen?”).
4. Viewpoint evaluation: These queries attack singular or narrow perspectives (e.g., “Why is this necessary?” or “Who benefits from that?”).
5. Implication probing: These questions challenge arguments’ sensibility and desirability (e.g., “Why is this important?” or “How did this affect you?”).
6. Questioning the question: These queries challenge the nature of questions (e.g., “Why was this question asked?” or “What other question might you ask?”).
Try them and see how they work. Remember, facilitation is a learning process for both you and your participants. By combining these techniques with quality presentation skills and knowledge of the content, your skills should increase tremendously. If you follow this advice, you should notice that participants will lead the class discussions and that you will act as a conductor of a symphony. That is, you will set up conditions that encourage class participation, collaboration and deeper understanding of the topic. I have provided several references to assist you further in understanding facilitation. Good luck!
Question for discussion: Can you think of other questions that elicit class participation?
Gottschalk, K. K. (1994). Facilitating discussion: A brief guide. Ithaca, NY: John S. Knight Writing
Program, Cornell University.
Renner, P. F. (1993). The art of teaching adults: How to become an exceptional instructor &
facilitator. Vancouver: Training Associates.
Socratic questions. (n.d.). Changing Minds. Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/
Ukens, L. L. (2001). What smart trainers know: The secrets of success from the world’s foremost
experts. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.